General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. It can also be used as an accent shrub in moist to wet sunny areas. It is also useful in buffer plantings.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A common and widespread species in forest edges and in thickets. It can be aggressive when planted, spreading readily from seed, so caution is advisable.
Grown by enthusiasts.
Medium erect shrub with a narrow crown. Leaves 1-2 inches long.
Typically 6-8 feet in height. Taller than broad.
Fast to moderate.
Southeastern United States south to the Monroe County Keys; Bermuda, Bahamas and Cuba. Common throughout most of its range in South Florida. In the Monroe County Keys, known only from Key Largo where collected once in 2003.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Moist to wet forest edges and thickets; also disturbed sites.
Moist to seasonally wet, well-drained to poorly-drained, sandy, limestone, or organic soils, with or without humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Moderate; tolerates brackish water or occasional inundation by salt water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
High; can tolerate moderate amounts of salt wind without injury.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Semi-showy heads. Fragrant. Dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants.
Inconspicuous achene, but fruiting masses can be semi-showy.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides some food and significant cover for wildlife. May be a nectar plant for monarch (Danaus plexippus) and other butterflies. Flowers are pollinated and the seeds are dispersed by wind.
Can be grown from seed. Cover with just enough soil to keep the seeds from blowing away. Also can be propogated from soft or hard wood cuttings.
Spreads readily from seed in the garden and can become weedy. The pollen is an allergen.