General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also along the margins of ponds and lakes.
Grown by enthusiasts.
Medium herbaceous fern.
Typically 1-2 feet in height. Spreads from underground stems and forms small patches.
Widespread in eastern and central North America south to Miami-Dade County and the Monroe County mainland; Bermuda and Cuba.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes from South Florida north to southern Brevard, Osceola, Polk, and Pasco counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations from the Monroe County Keys north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Wet hammocks and marshes.
Seasonally wet to moist, moderately well-drained to poorly drained organic soils.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Light shade to moderate shade.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from spores with difficulty, and division.
Miami-Dade County Landscape Manual (2005)