General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also along the margins of ponds and lakes.
Grown by enthusiasts.
Medium herbaceous fern.
Typically 1-2 feet in height. Spreads from underground stems and forms small patches.
Widespread in eastern and central North America south to Miami-Dade County and the Monroe County mainland; Bermuda and Cuba.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Wet hammocks and marshes.
Seasonally wet to moist, moderately well-drained to poorly drained organic soils.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Light shade to moderate shade.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from spores with difficulty, and division.