General Landscape Uses:
Specimen or accent groundcover in moist to wet sites.
Grown by one or two native plant nurseries in South Florida.
large herbaceous fern.
About 3-4 feet in height. About as broad as tall.
Widespread in eastern and central North America south to Miami-Dade County and the Monroe County mainland; West Indies, Mexico and Central America. Not documented on barrier islands in South Florida, but possibly historically present; it grows well at Pan’s Garden
in Palm Beach.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes north to Indian River and Manatee counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Swamps and marshes.
Wet, poorly-drained organic soils, acid pH.
High; requires rich organic soils for optimal growth.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Full sun to light shade or moderate shade.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from spores.
It is listed as commercially exploited by the state of Florida.