General Landscape Uses:
Specimen or accent groundcover in moist to wet sites.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A fairly common element of freshwater marshes and prairies.
Grown by one or two native plant nurseries in South Florida.
Medium herbaceous fern.
Typically 3-4 feet in height. Usually as broad as tall.
Widespread in eastern and central North America west to Texas and south to Broward and Collier counties; West Indies, Mexico, Central America, South America and the Old World. Very rare in Broward County.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Swamps and marshes.
Wet, poorly-drained organic soils.
High; requires rich organic soils for optimal growth.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Full sun to light shade or moderate shade.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from spores.
It is listed as commercially exploited by the state of Florida.