General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also a spreading groundcover in shady areas.
Grown by one or two native plant nurseries in South Florida.
Large herbaceous fern.
Typically 3-6 feet in height. Spreading from horizontal stems (stolons) and forming large masses.
Florida, Louisiana and Texas south to the Monroe County Keys (where very rare); West Indies, Mexico, Central America and South America.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes north to Indian River and Manatee counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Moist hammocks and swamps.
Moist to seasonally wet, well-drained to poorly-drained sandy, limestone, or organic soils, with humusy top layer; or epiphytic on Sabal palmetto.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from divisions or spores.
It can be aggressive in the garden, and some caution is urged. Similar to the invasive exotic Asian sword fern
, but with thin, light brown scales at the base of the fronds instead of wide, dark brown scales; also similar to the exotic invasive tuberous sword fern, which has strongly overlapping pinnae (leaflets).