General Landscape Uses:
Accent shrub or small tree. Buffer plantings.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A relatively common sub-canopy tree in hammocks within a limited geographic range.
Native plant nurseries. Available in Lake Worth at Amelia's SmartyPlants
(561-540-6296), in Homestead at Plant Creations Inc.
(305-248-8147) and in Boynton Beach at Sustainscape
Small to medium tree with and erect trunk and narrow crown. Trunks to 6-8 inches in diameter. Bark gray to dark reddish-brown, outer bark flaking to expose light brown inner bark. Leaves tropical semi-deciduous, dark green, about 2-4 inches long.
Typically 10-25 feet in height; to 33 feet in South Florida. Usually taller than broad.
Slow to moderate.
Monroe County Keys and Miami-Dade County; disjunct in Palm Beach Countyn where historically extirpated; West Indies, Mexico and Central America. In Miami-Dade County, known only from the Miami Rock Ridge south of the Miami River and the Florida Keys in and around Elliott Key in Biscayne National Park. Collected once in Palm Beach County at Lake Worth in 1891, probably on the island of Palm Beach (Mr. Spencer s.n. A
). For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida
website; note the X symbol in Palm Beach County.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes north to Indian River and Manatee counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Moist, well-drained limestone soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Full sun to light shade.
Female flowers red, males green.
Inconspicuous; the flowers are unisexual.
All year; peak spring-summer.
Inconspicuous green capsule turning brown at maturity.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Gray lichens grow directly on the leaves. The flowers are wind pollinated.
Can be grown from seed.