General Landscape Uses:
Accent shrub or small tree. Buffer plantings.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A relatively common understory or sub-canopy element in hammocks.
Widely cultivated. Available in Lake Worth at Indian Trails Native Nursery
(561-641-9488) and at Amelia's SmartyPlants
Tall upright shrub or small tree with a small trunk and branches. Bark pale grayish to whitish, smooth. Leaves leathery, dull dark green above; leaf stem reddish.
Typically 10-20 feet in height; to 28 feet in South Florida. Taller than broad.
Moderate to slow.
Monroe County Keys north to Volusia, Hendry and Levy counties, mostly along the coast; Bermuda, West Indies, Mexico and Central America. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes from South Florida north to southern Brevard, Osceola, Polk, and Pasco counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations from the Monroe County Keys north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Moist, well-drained sandy or limestone soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate to high; grows best with some organic content and may languish in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Moderately low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water, but tolerates short term inunation by salt water from storm surge with minimal damage.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Light shade to full sun.
All year; peak spring-summer.
Black or reddish berry. Edible.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and cover for wildlife. Attracts bee and moth pollinators, including the tantalus sphinx
) moth. Birds eat the fruits.
Can be grown from de-pulped seed. Place in light shade. Germination usually occurs within 1 month.
Schaefer & Tanner 1997
The pinkish new growth is very attractive. Some say white stopper has a "skunky" odor, although many can not detect the smell. See also the Florida Wildflower Foundation's Flower Friday