General Landscape Uses:
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A relatively rare edge tree of rockland hammocks on the mainland; also a shrub in pine rocklands in southern Miami-Dade County.
Grown by enthusiasts.
Small tree or large shrub with a rangy, somewhat unpredictable form. Leaves thick, dull green above with large conspicuous veins.
Typically 10-20 feet in height. Often taller than broad, but often shrublike and as broad as tall.
Monroe County Keys and Miami-Dade County; Bahamas and Greater Antilles. In Miami-Dade County, native to the Miami Rock Ridge from Long Pine Key in Everglades National Park north and east to west of Goulds. Presumed extirpated in the Monroe County Keys where collected once on North Key Largo in 1961.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Moist, well-drained limestone soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
High; does not require any supplemental water once established.
Can be grown from seed. Place in light shade or full sun.
It is listed as endangered by the state of Florida. See also Florida Natural Areas Inventory's Field Guide to the Rare Plants of Florida
page (Chafin 2000).