General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also butterfly gardens in wet soils.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A common but somewhat ephemeral understory herb in swamps and moist forests.
Grown by enthusiasts and occasionally by native plant nurseries.
Short-lived medium herb.
Typically 2-3 feet in height. Sometimes as broad as tall.
Widespread in North America south to the Monroe County mainland; West Indies, Mexico, Central America and South America.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes from South Florida north to southern Brevard, Osceola, Polk, and Pasco counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations from the Monroe County Keys north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Swamps and moist forests.
Moist to wet, moderately well-drained to well-drained, sandy, limestone, or organic soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Light shade to moderate shade.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Larval host and nectar plant for red admiral (Vanessa atalanta
) butterflies; larval host for question mark (Polygonia interrogationis
Can be grown from seed.