Small tree or large shrub with a broad-spreading round-topped crown. Trunks often twisted, to 8 inches in diameter. Bark dark gray to brown, generally smooth, and slightly furrowed near the base. Leaves shiny, about 1-2 inches long, the edges usually rolled downward.
Typically 15-30 feet in height in South Florida; to 36 feet in Florida. Can be as broad as tall.
Southeastern United States south to Miami-Dade and Collier counties. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website.
Pinelands, scrub and xeric hammocks.
Moist to dry, well-drained sandy soils, with or without humusy top layer.
Low to moderate; it can grow in nutrient poor soils or soils with some organic content.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
High; does not require any supplemental water once established.
Inconspicuous. Pollination is by wind.
Brown acorn. Edible.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and cover for wildlife. Larval host plant for Horace's duskywing (Erynnis horatius), red-banded hairstreak (Calycopis cecrops) and white-M hairstreak (Parrhasius m-album) butterflies; possible larval host for Juvenal's duskywing (Erynnis juvenalis) and oak hairstreak (Fixsenia favonius) butterflies. The acorns are utilized by squirrels and the threatened Florida scrub jay.
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.