Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations.
Grown by enthusiasts.
Small to medium tree or large shrub with a rounded, spreading crown. Trunks short to 18 inches in diameter, but usually much less. Bark light gray, roughened by numerous cone-like warts bearing long, sharp brown spines. Leaves temperate deciduous, compound, aromatic, shiny green above, to about 8 inches in length.
Typically 10-20 feet in height in South Florida; to 65 feet in Florida. Often as broad as tall.
Southeastern United States west to Texas and south to Miami-Dade and Lee counties. Very rare in Broward County; known only from the area in and around Hugh Taylor Birch State Park. Also rare in Miami-Dade County, where confined to barrier islands and sandy areas north of the Miami River. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website. Little's map exagerates the range of this inland in southeastern Florida.
Hammocks and coastal thickets.
Moist, well-drained sandy soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate to low; it prefers soils with organic content, but will still grow reasonably well in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
High; does not require any supplemental water once established.
Full sun to light shade.
Inconspicuous. Flowers unisexual.
Small subglobose glandular-punctate follicles.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides moderate amounts of food and cover for wildlife. Larval host plant for giant swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes) butterflies.
Can be grown from seed removed from the outer coating. Scatter seeds over soil and barely cover.
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.