General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also wet wildflower and butterfly gardens.
Grown by enthusiasts and occasionally by native plant nurseries.
Small to medium annual herb.
About 6-18 inches in height. Usually taller than broad.
Eastern and central United States west to Texas and south to Miami-Dade and Collier counties; West Indies.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Swamps and wet disturbed sites.
Wet to moist, well-drained to poorly-drained sandy or organic soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
A pair of inconspicuous carpels pendent from a supporting axis.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Larval host plant for black swallowtail
(Papilio polyxenes) butterflies.