Large upright shrub or small tree with a narrow crown. Both trunks and branches are slender and erect; the tips of the branches become arched under the weight of flowers and fruit, one or both of which are almost always present. Trunks 2-3 inches in diameter, and sometimes more. Bark thin, pale gray to almost white. Leaves green, darker above, shiny, 3-6 inches long, persistent.
Typically 8-15 feet in height; to 20 feet or more in South Florida. Usually taller than broad.
Monroe County Keys north to Flagler, Polk and Pasco counties; West Indies, southern Mexico and Central America. Common throughout most of its range in South Florida, but mostly restricted to the coasts north of Lake Okeechobee. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website.
Hammocks, thickets and pine rocklands.
Moist, well-drained sandy or limestone soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
High; can tolerate moderate amounts of salt wind without injury.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Light shade to full sun.
White to pink, with noticable yellow anthers.
Semi-showy in dense terminal clusters. Fragrant.
All year; peak in fall.
Drupe, black and glossy at maturity, 1/4" in diameter, thin fleshed and juicy. Seeds solitary and hard.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and cover for wildlife. Birds eat the fruits.
Can be grown from seed, which are best de-pulped. Some seeds are apparently not viable. Fruit should be harvested when ripe directly from the mother plant to avoid predation by insects. Start in light shade in moist soils.
A very handsome adaptable plant with dark green foliage and one of our more attractive native shrubs when in bloom. One of the best shrubs for the garden. Similar to the invasive exotic shoebutton ardisia.
George D. Gann In habitat, Everglades National Park, Florida
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.